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Priority Model

Casbin support load policies with priority.

Load Policy with Priority Implicitly​

It's quite simple, the order determines the priority, policy appeared earlier has higher priority.


e = priority(p.eft) || deny

Load Policy with Priority Explicitly​

Also see: casbin#550

The smaller priority value will have a higher priority. If there's a non-numerical character in priority, it will be in the last, rather than throw an error.

Token name convention

The priority token name in policy definition is "priority" conventionally. A customized one requires invoking e.SetFieldIndex() and reload policies (full example on TestCustomizedFieldIndex ).


p = customized_priority, sub, obj, act, eft

Golang code example:

e, _ := NewEnforcer("./example/priority_model_explicit_customized.conf",
// Due to the customized priority token, the enforcer failed to handle the priority.
ok, err := e.Enforce("bob", "data2", "read") // the result will be `true, nil`
// set PriorityIndex and reload
e.SetFieldIndex("p", constant.PriorityIndex, 0)
err := e.LoadPolicy()
if err != nil {
log.Fatalf("LoadPolicy: %v", err)
ok, err := e.Enforce("bob", "data2", "read") // the result will be `false, nil`

Now, explicit priority only support AddPolicy & AddPolicies, if UpdatePolicy been called, you shouldn't change the priority attribute.


r = sub, obj, act

p = priority, sub, obj, act, eft

g = _, _

e = priority(p.eft) || deny

m = g(r.sub, p.sub) && r.obj == p.obj && r.act == p.act


p, 10, data1_deny_group, data1, read, deny
p, 10, data1_deny_group, data1, write, deny
p, 10, data2_allow_group, data2, read, allow
p, 10, data2_allow_group, data2, write, allow

p, 1, alice, data1, write, allow
p, 1, alice, data1, read, allow
p, 1, bob, data2, read, deny

g, bob, data2_allow_group
g, alice, data1_deny_group


alice, data1, write --> true // for `p, 1, alice, data1, write, allow` has highest priority
bob, data2, read --> false
bob, data2, write --> true // for bob has role of `data2_allow_group` which has right to write data2, and there's no deny policy with higher priority

Load Policy with Priority Based on Role and User Hierarchy​

The inherited structure of roles and users can only be multiple trees, not graphs. If one user has multiple roles,you have to make sure the user has the same level in different trees. If two roles have the same level,the policy(the role corresponding) appeared earlier has higher priority. more details also see casbin#833、casbin#831


r = sub, obj, act

p = sub, obj, act, eft

g = _, _

e = subjectPriority(p.eft) || deny

m = g(r.sub, p.sub) && r.obj == p.obj && r.act == p.act


p, root, data1, read, deny
p, admin, data1, read, deny

p, editor, data1, read, deny
p, subscriber, data1, read, deny

p, jane, data1, read, allow
p, alice, data1, read, allow

g, admin, root

g, editor, admin
g, subscriber, admin

g, jane, editor
g, alice, subscriber


jane, data1, read --> true // jane is at the bottom,so priority is higher than editor, admin and root
alice, data1, read --> true

The role hierarchy like this:

role: root
└─ role: admin
β”œβ”€ role editor
β”‚ └─ user: jane
└─ role: subscriber
└─ user: alice

The priority automatically like this:

role: root                 # auto priority: 30
└─ role: admin # auto priority: 20
β”œβ”€ role: editor # auto priority: 10
└─ role: subscriber # auto priority: 10